What is Anemia?

What is Anemia?

It’s the situation when hemoglobin and red blood cells appear under normal levels in the blood. There are various anemia. Those are:

-Iron deficiency anemia

-Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency anemia

-Hemolytic anemia

-Folic acide deficiency anemia

-Anemia resulting from chronic diseases

-Anemia caused by abnormalities in red blood cells.

-Pernicious and megaloblastic anemia

-Aplastic anemia


What is hemoglobin? What is the limit of it?

Hemoglobin is a blood component which is synthesized from the ribosomes in the red blood cells. The task of the hemoglobin is to carry the oxygen to the tissues. The hemoglobin molecule consists of two parts. The first part is a globin which is a four a polypeptide chained protein. The second part is porphyrin which has an iron in the middle of it.Hemoglobin value differs between the sexes. In men, the normal range is 13:50 to 17:50 g / dl; in women the normal range is 12.00-16.00g/dl. If hemoglobin is under normal level it is called anemia, if it is over normal level it is called polycythemia.

What is hematocrit?

It’s the percentage of red blood cells in the blood. It is equal to three times the amount of hemoglobin in the blood level. If hemoglobin is under normal level it is called anemia, if it is over normal level it is called polycythemia.


What is the type of Anemia

1-Iron deficiency anemia

This occurs as a result of lack of iron in the red blood cells. It can appear as a result of excessive blood loss. Treatment is usually referred to nutritional supplements for the diets and iron.

2-Vitamin B12 deficiency anemia

Absorption of vitamin B-12 takes place in the stomach. For the eventuate of this absorption, an enzyme which is called B-12 must be secreted in the stomach. The lack of this factor causes vitamin deficiency. B12 is essential for the production of bone morrow from the red blood cells. Insufficient amount causes anemia. This type of anemia is seen on vegeterian who doesn’t eat animal products and stomach disorders. Some findings of this anemia are:

Weight loss
Blackened skin
Yellow and blue colour blindness
Swollen sore tongue

3-Hemolytic anemia

It occurs as a result of the destruction of red blood cells by antibodies. There are many inherited or acquired hemolytic anemias.

As with other anemias, hemoglobin which carries oxygen in red blood cells is reduced as a result. The body produces new blood cells to meet the neeeds when younger cells are destroyed.

There are various kinds of anemias. Some types of hereditary hemolytic anemia are charactirised by hard ones that cause destruction in red blood cells by boxing in spleen. There are many small, fragile and spherical red blood cells in spherocytosis.

There is a lack of spesific enzyme which is needed by red blood cells: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. This deficiency results in anemia since it ruptures the cells and leds to the deaths.

Some antibiotics and materials used for quinine, causes to destruction of red blood cells in people with G6PD deficiency. Few people with G6PD deficiency of Mediterranean origin, reacts to a material in vicia faba and a situation appears called favism.

External factors cause acquired hemolytic anemia not hereditary abnormalities in cells. Malaria which is destroyed by micro-organisms that affects cells is an example. Another example is the physical result when blood leaks from blood valve. In these cases, healthy red blood cells really suffers and some of them are destroyed.

In some people, an autoimmune disease sees body’s red blood cells as foreigners and kills them incorrectly.

Hemolytic anemia caused by an immune reaction may occur when transfused into the bloodstream. Hemolytic disease in newborn infants, the mother’s immune system destroys the fetus’s red blood cells.

4-Folic acide deficiency anemia:

It is similar to the type of anemia due to vitamin B12 deficiency. In this anemia, there is a problem of folic acid absorption of the small intestine. Main reasons of folic acide deficiency are taking some parts of the small intestine, chronic alcoholism, celiac syndrome, Crohn’s disease. In addition, feeding by goat’s milk pressures folic acide emission. Folicacid deficiency anemia-specific findings include the following:




-Tongue swelling and redness


5-Anemia resulting from chronic diseases:

They are seen on ongoing long-term illnesses: Those are;


Rheumatoid arthritis related anemia: It develops due to malabsorption of iron but iron is a misleadinly on normal level.
Kidney failure-related anemia: erythropoietin deficiency anemia. The levels of iron parameters and bone marrow are normal. Treatment is to replace the missing erythropoietin.


6-Anemia caused by abnormalities in red blood cell:

Due to mutations in a cell, it’s the destruction as a result of the cell membrane mutations. Like Thalassemia (Mediterranean anemia), sickle cell anemia.

Thalassemia: It’s the disorder in the structure of hemoglobin in the blood. It shows the genetic switch. There are two forms:


Minor thalassemia (Mediterranean anemia): mild and often mixed with iron-deficiency anemia. Some patients even don’t know that they are carriers. The only condition patients arecomplaining is fatigue.

Thalassemia major (Cooley anemia): a severe form of the disease. Red blood cells die in the bone marrow before they get mature. Heart failure may be seen in infants as a result ofsudden anemia. Blood transfusion is done periodically in these patients.

Sickle cell anemia: It is named as genetic forms of red blood cells in the blood due to deterioration seen in the form of a banana or sickle. It’s a genetic transition. The biggest problem is it causes severe pain by blocking in capillary. because of pain in bringing of blockage in the capillary. Vision problems occur as a result of the circulation of the retinainsufficiently fed, capillary vessels blockage occurs in the brain. There is no cure, treatment is symptomatic. In our country, it’s mostly seen in Antalya, Mersin and Hatay.

7-Megaloblastic anemia

It’s a type of anemia which is seen in folic acise deficiency and B12 vitamine deficiency. It’s named as the red blood cells are big. The main reasons for this anemia are:


Liver failure

Lack of intrinsic factor-synthesis

corruption-intestinal absorption

8-Aplastic anemia:

It occurs as a result of insufficient amount of bone marrow erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets. Main reasons of this anemia are exposure to radiation, influence of toxic materials, drugs.  As for the reason, there is a bone marrow suppression caused by the autoimmune system. Bone marrow transplantation and immunosuppressive treatments areusually applied to the patient.

İnt. Doctor Ahmet Bahadır UÇAR




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